In Greek religion, Athena, often spelled Athene, is the goddess of war, craftsmanship, and pragmatic reason, who was recognized by the Romans as Minerva. She was primarily urban and civilized, the polar opposite of Artemis, the goddess of the wild in many ways. Athena was most likely a pre-Hellenic deity who was adopted by the Greeks. However, but unlike Minoans, the Greek economy was essentially militaristic, therefore Athena, in addition to her prior domestic responsibilities, had become a goddess of war.
She was Zeus’s daughter, conceived alone without help of a woman and born full-grown from his brow. According to another legend, Zeus devoured Metis, the goddess of counseling, when she was pregnant with Athena, and Athena eventually emerged out of Zeus. She wielded tremendous power as Zeus’ favorite child.
The link between Athena with the acropolises of numerous Greek city states is most likely due to the placement of the monarchs’ residences. She is also said to have neither a spouse nor children. She may have not been regarded as a virgin at the time, but her innocence was imputed to her early on, and the understanding of her epithets Pallas and Parthenos was based on this. Athena could not have been dominated by other deities, such like Aphrodite, and she could not have been raped as a palace goddess.
In Greek and Roman mythology, Athena motivates and battles beside the Greek heroes as a war goddess; her assistance is associated with military superiority. Zeus, the principal deity, also delegates the sphere of war to Ares, the god of war, and Athena in the Iliad. Ares’ moral and military supremacy versus Athena stems in part by the fact that she represents the logical and cultured aspect of combat, as well as the ideals of fairness and skill, whereas Ares symbolizes only bloodlust. Her supremacy stems in part from the far greater diversity and significance of her duties, as well as Homer’s forebears’ loyalty, Ares as someone of alien origin.
Athena is the celestial embodiment of a heroic, military ideal in the Tale: she embodies perfection in close quarter combat, triumph, and glory. Fear, struggle, resistance, and assault are the attributes that lead to triumph on Athena’s aegis, or armor, which she wears when she goes to fight. In Homer’s Odyssey, Athena appears as Odysseus’ tutelary deity, while legends from succeeding sources show her in a similar role as Perseus’ and Heracles’ helper (Hercules). As the goddess of good advice, cautious restraint, and functional insight, as well as war, Athena became the goddess of good counsel, prudent restraint, and practical insight.
The city, particularly its citadel, replaced the castle as Athena’s dominion in post-Mycenaean periods. She was universally revered, but in recent era, she is most closely identified with Athens, the city that bears her name. Athena Polias (“Athena, Guardian of the City”), her rise as a city goddess coincided with the ancient city-transition state’s from monarch to democracy. She was linked with both birds and snakes, especially the owl, which has become known as the city’s unique symbol.
Her birth and her battle with Poseidon, the sea god, for suzerainty of the city can be seen on the Parthenon’s pediments, and her birthday was commemorated during the Panathenaea festival in July. She also was revered in a number of other places, most notably Sparta.
In general, Athena has become the goddess of crafts and skillful peacetime professions. She was recognized as the patroness of cloth weaving in particular. Her patronage of skill led to her being allegorized to personify wisdom and morality, which was a natural progression.
Athena was traditionally depicted in body armour and a helmet, with a shield and a lance. The sculptor Phidias and the dramatist Aeschylus, both Athenians, made substantial contributions to the cultural spread of Athena’s image. She was the inspiration for three of Phidias’ sculptural masterpieces, including the massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) statue of Athena Parthenos once housed in the Parthenon; and she founded the Areopagus (Athens’ aristocratic council) in Aeschylus’ dramatic tragedy Eumenides, breaking a judge’s deadlock in favor of Orestes, the defendant, and setting the premise that a tied ballot meant a